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What is meant by Diversity Factor?

In electrical power system, there are some important factors. These are, the Load Factor, Demand Factor, Diversity Factor, Plant Capacity Factor, Plant Use Factor etc. Before, I have discussed about Load Factor and Demand Factor in details with example. I’m today going to describe the Diversity Factor. What is meant by diversity factor?

What is Diversity Factor?

Diversity Factor is the ratio of the sum of individual maximum demands to the maximum demand of the systems. As the maximum demand of a system is less than the sum of individual maximum demands, so the diversity factor must be great than one. The mathematical expression of it is,

Diversity Factor =

Sum of individual maximum demands / Maximum demand of the system.

Diversity factor formula
Diversity factor formula

For example, a power station or substation has 4 consumers connected. They have different demand in different time. Let consumer 1 has 10kW maximum demand, and 12kW, 15kW, 9kW demand of customer 2, 3 and 4 respectively. The maximum demand to the power station is 40kW. Then what is the diversity factor of the power station?

Here the sum of individual maximum demands is (10+12+15+9)kW = 46kW

And the maximum demand of whole system is 40kW.

Therefore, the Diversity Factor = 46/40= 1.15

It’s needless to say that the diversity factor must be greater than unity. Because the maximum demand to a power station is less than the sum of individual demands.

See another example.

Let, A main feeder has two sub-feeder. 1. Sub-feeder A and 2. Sub-feeder B

Maximum demand of sub-feeder A= 70kW

Maximum demand of sub-feeder B= 75kW

And maximum demand of main feeder = 120kW

here, the sum of the maximum of demands of individual feeder = (70+75)kW = 145kW

Then, Diversity Factor =145/120= 1.2

It helps to determine the size of feeder and transformer in electrical power system.

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